Although we experience emotions all day long, we only periodically stop and take stock of what emotion we are experiencing. This leads to interesting temporal dissociations between the experience of emotions and our meta-awareness of them (Schooler, 2001; Schooler, 2002; Schooler & Schreiber, 2004). Not only can people fail to notice emotions, even when they attend to their emotions they may get it wrong (Schooler, Ariely, & Loewenstein, 2003). As when an individual shouts "Im not angry". Such translation dissociations are illuminated by examining the relationship between people’s self-reported emotions and various indirect psychophysiological measures (Schooler & Mauss, 2010; Handy, Smilek, Gieger, Liu, & Schooler, 2009.) Finally the distinction between experience and meta-awareness leads to alternative interpretations of unconscious emotions. One possibility is that people have emotions that simply go below the threshold of experience, but another possibility is that they experience the emotions but fail to explicitly notice them (Schooler, Mrazek, Baird, & Winkielman, in press; Winkielman & Schooler, 2009, 2011).
- The value of distinguishing between unconscious, conscious, and meta-conscious processes.
- Mindfulness and mind-wandering: Finding convergence through opposing constructs
- Blind spots to the self: Limits in knowledge of mental contents and personal predispositions
- Consciousness, Metacognition and the Unconscious
- To be happy and to know it: The experience and meta- awareness of pleasure
- ERP evidence for rapid hedonic evaluation of logos
- Neural activity predicts attitude change in cognitive dissonance
- Deciphering the Enigmatic Face: The Importance of Facial Dynamics in Interpreting Subtle Facial Expressions