John Protzko completed his M.A in Educational Psychology with a focus on program measurement in evaluation from NYU. He then went on to a Ph. D.in developmental psychology focusing on the raising and development of intelligence. His main research interests are still on raising and the development of intelligence. He is currently also involved in research on free will with a deep interest in studying causality. His current research also explores the field of meta-science, studying the assumptions and processes of science and scientists. He has taught courses at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in social psychology, educational psychology, and research methods.