Verbal Overshadowing

A long standing interest in the lab is the effects of verbalization on non-verbal cognition.  In an initial series of studies, Schooler & Engstler-Schooler, (1990) found that verbal rehearsal of a previously seen face or color markedly impaired subsequent recognition.  Since the discovery of this source of memory interference, termed “verbal overshadowing”, we conducted extensive research to better understand when and why verbal overshadowing occurs. For verbal overshadowing materials please see this link:

Several of the questions that we have investigated include:



Related Questions


Selected Publications


Jonathan Schooler

My lab’s research takes a “big picture” perspective in attempting to understand the nature of mental life, and in particular consciousness. Combining empirical, philosophical, and contemplative traditions, we address broad questions that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries.